Breakdown of GHG emissions by Sector and Gas


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About ... Historical examination of GHG Emissions

Zeynep Kahraman, TSP team

Story:

An historical examination of greenhouse gas emissions data provides an important perspective. It is a good excercise to observe the evolvements of not only CO2 but also other greenhouse gases over time. This graph presents the amount of all greenhouse gas emissions emitted in particular countries or regions from all sectors. All emissions are expressed in CO2 (or carbon) equivalents using 100 years global warming potentials found in the IPCC Second Assessment Report (1996).

Data Source:

Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT) Version 8.0. (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 2011). Go to WRI database

World Bank – World Development Indicators. Go to World Bank database

Context and definitions

Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT)

The sector options are drawn from the IPCC Common Reporting Framework used by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The main sectors include: Energy, Industrial Processes, Agriculture, Land Use Change and Forestry, and Waste. The Energy sector also includes five subsectors (e.g., Electricity & Heat). International Bunkers are shown as a sector, but separately from Energy and National Total, in accordance with IPCC Guidelines. The greenhouse gas options cover six main greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and the three high global warming potential gases (HFCs, PFCs, and SF6).

For more information about data sources, descriptions, and methodologies please see the documentation prepared by CAIT.

World Bank – World Development Indicators

Agricultural methane emissions are emissions from animals, animal waste, rice production, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning. Methane emissions from other fuel combustions are emissions from the production, handling, transmission, and combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels.

CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production is the sum of three IEA categories of CO2 emissions: (1) Main Activity Producer Electricity and Heat which contains the sum of emissions from main activity producer electricity generation, combined heat and power generation and heat plants. Main activity producers  (formerly known as public utilities) are defined as those undertakings whose primary activity is to supply the public. They may be publicly or privately owned. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 1 a. For the CO2 emissions from fuel combustion (summary) file, emissions from own on-site use of fuel in power plants (EPOWERPLT) are also included. (2) Unallocated Autoproducers which contains the emissions from the generation of electricity and/or heat by autoproducers. Autoproducers are defined as undertakings that generate electricity and/or heat, wholly or partly for their own use as an activity which supports their primary activity. They may be privately or publicly owned. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, these emissions would normally be distributed between industry, transport and "other" sectors. (3) Other Energy Industries contains emissions from fuel combusted in petroleum refineries, for the manufacture of solid fuels, coal mining, oil and gas extraction and other energy-producing industries. This corresponds to the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 1 b and 1 A 1 c. According to the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, emissions from coke inputs to blast furnaces can either be counted here or in the Industrial Processes source/sink category. Within detailed sectoral calculations, certain non-energy processes can be distinguished. In the reduction of iron in a blast furnace through the combustion of coke, the primary purpose of the coke oxidation is to produce pig iron and the emissions can be considered as an industrial process. Care must be taken not to double count these emissions in both Energy and Industrial Processes. In the IEA estimations, these emissions have been included in this category.

CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public services contains all emissions from fuel combustion in households. This corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 4 b. Commercial and public services includes emissions from all activities of ISIC Divisions 41, 50-52, 55, 63-67, 70-75, 80, 85, 90-93 and 99.

CO2 emissions from transport contains emissions from the combustion of fuel for all transport activity, regardless of the sector, except for international marine bunkers and international aviation. This includes domestic aviation, domestic navigation, road, rail and pipeline transport, and corresponds to IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 3. In addition, the IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the autoproducer consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).

CO2 emissions from manufacturing industries and construction contains the emissions from combustion of fuels in industry. The IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 2 includes these emissions. However, in the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the IPCC category also includes emissions from industry autoproducers that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers). Manufacturing industries and construction also includes emissions from coke inputs into blast furnaces, which may be reported either in the transformation sector, the industry sector or the separate IPCC Source/Sink Category 2, Industrial Processes.

GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF refers to changes in atmospheric levels of all greenhouse gases attributable to forest and land-use change activities, including but not limited to (1) emissions and removals of CO2 from decreases or increases in biomass stocks due to forest management, logging, fuelwood collection, etc.; (2) conversion of existing forests and natural grasslands to other land uses; (3) removal of CO2 from the abandonment of formerly managed lands (e.g. croplands and pastures); and (4) emissions and removals of CO2 in soil associated with land-use change and management. For Annex-I countries under the UNFCCC, these data are drawn from the annual GHG inventories submitted to the UNFCCC by each country; for non-Annex-I countries, data are drawn from the most recently submitted National Communication where available.  Because of differences in reporting years and methodologies, these data are not generally considered comparable across countries. Data are in million metric tons.

CO2 emissions from other sectors, less residential buildings and commercial and public services, contains the emissions from commercial/institutional activities, residential, agriculture/forestry, fishing and other emissions not specified elsewhere that are included in the IPCC Source/Sink Categories 1 A 4 and 1 A 5. In the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the category also includes emissions from autoproducers in the commercial/residential/agricultural sectors that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers).

Perfluorocarbons, used as a replacement for chlorofluorocarbons in manufacturing semiconductors, are a byproduct of aluminum smelting and uranium enrichment. Sulfur hexafluoride is used largely to insulate high-voltage electric power equipment.

Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced through fertilizer use (synthetic and animal manure), animal waste management, agricultural waste burning (nonenergy, on-site), and savannah burning. Nitrous oxide emissions from other fuel combustion are emissions produced by the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Industrial nitrous oxide emissions are emissions produced during the manufacturing of adipic acid and nitric acid.

You can change the measurement of GHG emissions between units of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent and carbon (C) equivalent.

Measurement Unit: Million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (MtCO2eq)converted to GtCO2,GtCO2eq, KtCO2eq, MtCeq, GtCeq and KtCeq.

Data Coverage

Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT)

CO2 from fossil fuels and cement (1850-2007); CO2 from land use changes (1990-2005); other gases (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6; 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005).

Interpolation for the five non-CO2 gases (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6) in between the given datas of 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005.

World Bank – World Development Indicators

CO2 emissions (1961-2010); N20 and CH4 (1990,2000,2005,2008 and 2010); HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 (1990,2000,2005 and 2008)

Interpolation for the five non-CO2 gases (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6) in between the given datas of 1990, 2000, 2005, 2008 and 2010.

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