Energy Balance by Country

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Léo Benichou

About ... Primary Energy Balance by Country

Léo Benichou, TSP team


The idea of this graph came while talking with my master thesis supervisor, Semida Silveira. Basically, we illustrate the "trading capacity" of a country or a region. On this graph, for instance you can compare oil production and consumtion levels along time. The difference is either an export capacity or an import to be realized.

Data Sources:

- Etemad & Luciani for the period 1900-1980

Bouda Etemad and Jean Luciani, World Energy Production 1800 – 1985, ISBN 2-600-56007-6, Data digitalized and published with agreement of B. Etemad

- US EIA Historical Statistics for 1981-2013

U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Statistics, Go to EIA database, data accessed 5 August 2014.


Statistical conventions, Primary Energy:

This graph represents primary energy. All units represent energy contents. No “physical units” such as mass or volumes are considered.

All data is loaded in Energy unit Mtoe (Million tons of oil equivalent)

The unit conversion factors applied are following:

How to read this graph : 1 Mtoe = 1,4286 Mtce

Energy quantities regarding fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal) represent higher heating value (gross calorific content) and are given by the EIA using country specific calorific content of fuels.

Nuclear energy represents the heat produced by fission and radioactive decay in the fuel. (primary "vapor" heat equivalent is calculated from raw nuclear electricity IEA conversion : raw electricity/primary vapor heat equivalent = 33%)

On the contrary, energy quantities under hydro, geothermal, wind, “solar, tide and wave” and “biomass and waste” energy correspond to raw electricity production.

The biodiesel and ethanol energy contents are calculated from volumes given in EIA data and represent lower heating values (net calorific content), the following density and calorific content are then applied:



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Set up your extrapolation from different scenarios and compare them.
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Compare different views for the future of Gas, Electricity,
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